The First Line

Oct 10, 2019
 

How to Start Your Novel?

Some Ideas for Writing the First Line.

If the agent of change in the novel is a person and you’re telling the story as an outside observer.

“In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice that I’ve been turning over in my mind ever since.” The Great Gatsby, F Scott Fitzgerald.

“Elmer Gantry was drunk.” Elmer Gantry, Sinclair Lewis.

“I first met Dean not long after my wife and I split up.” On The Road, Jack Kerouac.

If the agent of change is the narrator.

“You don’t know about me, without you have read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, but that ain’t no matter. That book was made by a Mr Mark Twain, and he told the truth, mainly.” Mark Twain.

“If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you’ll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don’t feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth.” The Catcher in the Rye, JD Salinger.

“If I am out of my mind, it’s all right with me, thought Moses Herzog.” Herzog, Saul Bellow.

“All this happened, more or less.” Slaughterhouse-Five, Kurt Vonnegut.

“The first thing I remember is being under something.” Ham on Rye, Charles Bukowski.

“I suppose that’s exactly the problem - I wasn’t raised to know any better.” The Sell-Out, Paul Beatty.

“I am a sick man… I am a spiteful man. I am an unattractive man. I think my liver is diseased.” Notes From Underground, Dostoyevsky.

“Of course I have not always been a drunkard.” The Drinker, Hans Fallada.

“I have never begun a novel with more misgiving.” The Razor’s Edge, Somerset Maugham.

“First the colours. Then the humans. That’s usually how I see things. Or at least, how I try.” The Book Thief, Markus Zusak.

“It was inevitable: the scent of bitter almonds always reminded him of the fate of unrequited love.” Love in the Time of Cholera, Gabriel García Márquez.

“I write this sitting in the kitchen sink.” I Capture the Castle, Dodie Smith.

“It was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs, and I didn’t know what I was doing in New York.” The Bell Jar, Sylvia Plath.

And, above all else, a line that can never be repeated sadly, because he owns it; Ford Madox Ford, The Good Soldier...

“This is the saddest story I have ever heard.”

If we have a 'situation' and a cast set-piece.

“It was love at first sight.” Catch-22, Joseph Heller.

“In the late summer of that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains.” A Farewell to Arms, Ernest Hemingway.

If it’s a big picture, allegorical, historical situation -  then pique curiosity in res media.

“It was a wrong number that started it, the telephone ringing three times in the dead of night, and the voice on the other end asking for someone he was not.” City of Glass, Paul Auster.

“He speaks in your voice, American, and there’s a shine in his eyes that’s halfway hopeful.” Underworld, Don DeLillo.

“It began the usual way, in the bathroom of the Lassimo Hotel.” A Visit From The Goon Squad, Jennifer Egan.

“Granted: I am an inmate of a mental hospital; my keeper is watching me, he never lets me out of his sight; there’s a peephole in the door, and my keeper’s eye is the shade of brown that can never see through a blue-eyed type like me.” The Tin Drum, Günter Grass.

“As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a monstrous vermin.” The Metamorphosis, Franz Kafka.

For big thematic, allegorical works in res media works beautifully, i.e drop-in to the action. The understatement cuts like a knife.

“The amber light came on.” Blindness, Jose Saramago.

A warning note as to what’s to come is a treat:

“Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendía was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice.” 100 Years of Solitude, Gabriel García Márquez.

For world-building speculative, fantasy, sci-fi - go oddball.

“It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.” 1984, George Orwell.

If in doubt, relax for now.

You’ll only crack it for sure and make a decision on it at the end of the novel writing process.

“Never open a book with weather. If it’s only to create atmosphere, and not a charac­ter’s reaction to the weather, you don’t want to go on too long. The reader is apt to leaf ahead look­ing for people.” Elmore Leonard.

Try a short opening sentence for plaudits.

The reader enters the world you’ve created without delay. They’re in it - fast. Boom.

Gabriel García Márquez said that he used to spend months trying to get the first sentence right, but when he did, the rest of the book fell into place.

You won’t know how to start it just right until you’ve worked through the hook (your one-line premise for your story) and your synopsis a few times and eyeballed your theme - all of this may well happen in second draft or beyond. I didn't crack mine for my first novel until the end of the second draft. It conformed to this model, I suppose, in retrospect.

A situation of moral emergency in which the dilemma is exposed.

The first sentence establishes the principal dilemma. If you’re being cute, you will cut to the heart of the matter and also infer - this is going to change. (We know this as smart readers, since it’s the first line!)

“For a man of his age, 52, divorced, he has, to his mind, solved the problem of sex rather well.” Disgrace, JM Coetzee.

My first novel’s opening sentence? (From Becoming Strangers.)

“Before he had cancer he’d been bored with life.” 

The review of my first novel's first sentence in The Guardian was:

The opening lines of Louise Dean's quite exceptional first novel may not be much of a laugh, but they stopped this reader in her tracks. It rarely takes me more than a page or two to sense whether a novel's going to take me somewhere worth going. In Dean's case, those first 17 words were enough. My heart raced and I sat up. I knew.

It's not just the bald, frank darkness of those two opening statements, nor the ache of truth they contain. And it's not just about the rise-and-fall rhythm of the words either, the pleasing arc that the collision of the two sentences somehow creates. No, most of all, I think, it's what the writer makes you feel - instantly - about this mystery "he": a wave of naked curiosity. Who on earth is this man, whose life has been so vivified by death?


 

 đźŽ‰ The First Line Fiesta - A Writing Competition for Members.

For the best opening sentence to a novel in progress. The winner will be decided by popular vote (all members one vote). Deadline for entry Halloween - 31 October. Prize - £150.
 
Enter your first sentence in The First Line Fiesta Room at The Novelry Lodge by 31 October. Voting slips will be sent out by email on 1st November, and announced here 3rd November.
 
It doesn't have to be fancy or clever, it just has to be good. (Inviting. Intriguing. Pithy.)
 
To whet your appetite, here are a few tips on creating that all-important first line and some famous examples!

 


The Top 100 Opening Sentences (as voted by American Book Review.)

1. “Call me Ishmael.” Moby-Dick (1851), Herman Melville.

2. “It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.” Pride and Prejudice (1813), Jane Austen.

3. “A screaming comes across the sky.” Gravity’s Rainbow (1973), Thomas Pynchon.

4. “Many years later, as he faced the firing squad, Colonel Aureliano Buendía was to remember that distant afternoon when his father took him to discover ice.” One Hundred Years of Solitude (1967; trans. Gregory Rabassa), Gabriel García Márquez.

5. “Lolita, light of my life, fire of my loins.” Lolita (1955), Vladimir Nabokov.

6. “Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.” Anna Karenina, (1877; trans. Constance Garnett), Leo Tolstoy.

7. “Riverrun, past Eve and Adam’s, from swerve of shore to bend of bay, brings us by a commodius vicus of recirculation back to Howth Castle and Environs.” Finnegans Wake (1939), James Joyce.

8. “It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.” George Orwell (1949), 1984.

9. “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair.” A Tale of Two Cities (1859), Charles Dickens.

10. “I am an invisible man.” Invisible Man (1952), Ralph Ellison.

11. “The Miss Lonelyhearts of the New York Post-Dispatch (Are you in trouble?—Do-you-need-advice?—Write-to-Miss-Lonelyhearts-and-she-will-help-you) sat at his desk and stared at a piece of white cardboard.” Miss Lonelyhearts (1933), Nathanael West.

12. “You don't know about me without you have read a book by the name of The Adventures of Tom Sawyer; but that ain’t no matter.” Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), Mark Twain.

13. “Someone must have slandered Josef K., for one morning, without having done anything truly wrong, he was arrested.” The Trial (1925; trans. Breon Mitchell), Franz Kafka.

14. “You are about to begin reading Italo Calvino’s new novel, If on a winter’s night a traveller.” If on a winter’s night a traveler (1979; trans. William Weaver), Italo Calvino.

15. “The sun shone, having no alternative, on the nothing new.” Murphy (1938), Samuel Beckett.

16. “If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you’ll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don’t feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth.” The Catcher in the Rye (1951), JD Salinger.

17. “Once upon a time and a very good time it was there was a moocow coming down along the road and this moocow that was coming down along the road met a nicens little boy named baby tuckoo.” A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916), James Joyce.

18. “This is the saddest story I have ever heard.” The Good Soldier (1915), Ford Madox Ford.

19. “I wish either my father or my mother, or indeed both of them, as they were in duty both equally bound to it, had minded what they were about when they begot me; had they duly considered how much depended upon what they were then doing;—that not only the production of a rational Being was concerned in it, but that possibly the happy formation and temperature of his body, perhaps his genius and the very cast of his mind;—and, for aught they knew to the contrary, even the fortunes of his whole house might take their turn from the humours and dispositions which were then uppermost:—Had they duly weighed and considered all this, and proceeded accordingly,—I am verily persuaded I should have made a quite different figure in the world, from that, in which the reader is likely to see me.” Tristram Shandy (1759–1767), Laurence Sterne.

20. “Whether I shall turn out to be the hero of my own life, or whether that station will be held by anybody else, these pages must show.” David Copperfield (1850), Charles Dickens.

21. “Stately, plump Buck Mulligan came from the stairhead, bearing a bowl of lather on which a mirror and a razor lay crossed.” Ulysses (1922), James Joyce.

22. “It was a dark and stormy night; the rain fell in torrents, except at occasional intervals, when it was checked by a violent gust of wind which swept up the streets (for it is in London that our scene lies), rattling along the house-tops, and fiercely agitating the scanty flame of the lamps that struggled against the darkness.” Paul Clifford (1830), Edward George Bulwer-Lytton.

23. “One summer afternoon Mrs. Oedipa Maas came home from a Tupperware party whose hostess had put perhaps too much kirsch in the fondue to find that she, Oedipa, had been named executor, or she supposed executrix, of the estate of one Pierce Inverarity, a California real estate mogul who had once lost two million dollars in his spare time but still had assets numerous and tangled enough to make the job of sorting it all out more than honorary.” The Crying of Lot 49 (1966), Thomas Pynchon.

24. “It was a wrong number that started it, the telephone ringing three times in the dead of night, and the voice on the other end asking for someone he was not.” City of Glass (1985), Paul Auster.

25. “Through the fence, between the curling flower spaces, I could see them hitting.” The Sound and the Fury (1929), William Faulkner.

26. “124 was spiteful.” Beloved (1987), Toni Morrison.

27. “Somewhere in la Mancha, in a place whose name I do not care to remember, a gentleman lived not long ago, one of those who has a lance and ancient shield on a shelf and keeps a skinny nag and a greyhound for racing.” Don Quixote (1605; trans. Edith Grossman), Miguel de Cervantes.

28. “Mother died today.” The Stranger (1942; trans. Stuart Gilbert), Albert Camus. 

29. “Every summer Lin Kong returned to Goose Village to divorce his wife, Shuyu.” Waiting (1999), Ha Jin.

30. “The sky above the port was the color of television, tuned to a dead channel.” Neuromancer (1984), William Gibson.

31. “I am a sick man... I am a spiteful man.” Notes from Underground (1864; trans. Michael R Katz), Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

32. “Where now? Who now? When now?” The Unnamable (1953; trans. Patrick Bowles), Samuel Beckett.

33. “Once an angry man dragged his father along the ground through his own orchard. ‘Stop!’ cried the groaning old man at last, ‘Stop! I did not drag my father beyond this tree.’” The Making of Americans (1925), Gertrude Stein.

34. “In a sense, I am Jacob Horner.” The End of the Road (1958), John Barth.

35. “It was like so, but wasn’t.” Galatea 2.2 (1995), Richard Powers.

36. “—Money...in a voice that rustled.” J R (1975), William Gaddis.

37. “Mrs. Dalloway said she would buy the flowers herself.” Mrs. Dalloway (1925), Virginia Woolf.

38. “All this happened, more or less.” Slaughterhouse-Five (1969), Kurt Vonnegut.

39. “They shoot the white girl first.” Paradise (1998), Toni Morrison.

40. “For a long time, I went to bed early.” Swann’s Way (1913; trans. Lydia Davis), Marcel Proust.

41. “The moment one learns English, complications set in.” Chromos (1990), Felipe Alfau.

42. “Dr. Weiss, at forty, knew that her life had been ruined by literature.” The Debut (1981), Anita Brookner.

43. “I was the shadow of the waxwing slain / By the false azure in the windowpane;” Pale Fire (1962), Vladimir Nabokov.

44. “Ships at a distance have every man’s wish on board.” Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), Zora Neale Hurston.

45. “I had the story, bit by bit, from various people, and, as generally happens in such cases, each time it was a different story.” Ethan Frome (1911), Edith Wharton.

46. “Ages ago, Alex, Allen and Alva arrived at Antibes, and Alva allowing all, allowing anyone, against Alex’s admonition, against Allen’s angry assertion: another African amusement... anyhow, as all argued, an awesome African army assembled and arduously advanced against an African anthill, assiduously annihilating ant after ant, and afterward, Alex astonishingly accuses Albert as also accepting Africa’s antipodal ant annexation.” Alphabetical Africa (1974), Walter Abish.

47. “There was a boy called Eustace Clarence Scrubb, and he almost deserved it.” The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952), CS Lewis.

48. “He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and he had gone eighty-four days now without taking a fish.” The Old Man and the Sea (1952), Ernest Hemingway.

49. “It was the day my grandmother exploded.” The Crow Road (1992), Iain M Banks.

50. “I was born twice: first, as a baby girl, on a remarkably smogless Detroit day in January of 1960; and then again, as a teenage boy, in an emergency room near Petoskey, Michigan, in August of 1974.” Middlesex (2002), Jeffrey Eugenides.

51. “Elmer Gantry was drunk.” Elmer Gantry (1927), Sinclair Lewis.

52. “We started dying before the snow, and like the snow, we continued to fall.” Tracks (1988), Louise Erdrich.

53. “It was a pleasure to burn.” Fahrenheit 451 (1953), Ray Bradbury.

54. “A story has no beginning or end; arbitrarily one chooses that moment of experience from which to look back or from which to look ahead.” The End of the Affair (1951), Graham Greene.

55. “Having placed in my mouth sufficient bread for three minutes’ chewing, I withdrew my powers of sensual perception and retired into the privacy of my mind, my eyes and face assuming a vacant and preoccupied expression.” At Swim-Two-Birds (1939), Flann O’Brien.

56. “I was born in the Year 1632, in the City of York, of a good Family, tho‘ not of that Country, my Father being a Foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull; He got a good Estate by Merchandise, and leaving off his Trade, lived afterward at York, from whence he had married my Mother, whose Relations were named Robinson, a very good Family in that Country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual Corruption of Words in England, we are now called, nay we call our selves, and write our Name Crusoe, and so my Companions always call’d me.” Robinson Crusoe (1719), Daniel Defoe.

57. “In the beginning, sometimes I left messages in the street.” Wittgenstein’s Mistress (1988), David Markson.

58. “Miss Brooke had that kind of beauty which seems to be thrown into relief by poor dress.” Middlemarch (1872), George Eliot.

59. “It was love at first sight.” Catch-22 (1961), Joseph Heller.

60. “What if this young woman, who writes such bad poems, in competition with her husband, whose poems are equally bad, should stretch her remarkably long and well-made legs out before you, so that her skirt slips up to the tops of her stockings?” Imaginative Qualities of Actual Things (1971), Gilbert Sorrentino.

61. “I have never begun a novel with more misgiving.” The Razor’s Edge (1944), W Somerset Maugham.

62. “Once upon a time, there was a woman who discovered she had turned into the wrong person.” Back When We Were Grown-ups (2001), Anne Tyler.

63. “The human race, to which so many of my readers belong, has been playing at children’s games from the beginning, and will probably do it till the end, which is a nuisance for the few people who grow up.” The Napoleon of Notting Hill (1904), GK Chesterton.

64. “In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice that I've been turning over in my mind ever since.” The Great Gatsby (1925), F Scott Fitzgerald.

65. “You better not never tell nobody but God.” The Color Purple (1982), Alice Walker.

66. “‘To be born again,’ sang Gibreel Farishta tumbling from the heavens, ‘first you have to die.’” The Satanic Verses (1988), Salman Rushdie.

67. “It was a queer, sultry summer, the summer they electrocuted the Rosenbergs, and I didn't know what I was doing in New York.” The Bell Jar (1963), Sylvia Plath.

68. “Most really pretty girls have pretty ugly feet, and so does Mindy Metalman, Lenore notices, all of a sudden.” The Broom of the System (1987), David Foster Wallace.

69. “If I am out of my mind, it’s all right with me, thought Moses Herzog.” Herzog (1964), Saul Bellow.

70. “Francis Marion Tarwater’s uncle had been dead for only half a day when the boy got too drunk to finish digging his grave and a Negro named Buford Munson, who had come to get a jug filled, had to finish it and drag the body from the breakfast table where it was still sitting and bury it in a decent and Christian way, with the sign of its Saviour at the head of the grave and enough dirt on top to keep the dogs from digging it up.” The Violent Bear it Away (1960), Flannery O’Connor.

71. “Granted: I am an inmate of a mental hospital; my keeper is watching me, he never lets me out of his sight; there’s a peephole in the door, and my keeper’s eye is the shade of brown that can never see through a blue-eyed type like me.” The Tin Drum (1959; trans. Ralph Manheim), Günter Grass.

72. “When Dick Gibson was a little boy he was not Dick Gibson.” The Dick Gibson Show (1971), Stanley Elkin.

73. “Hiram Clegg, together with his wife Emma and four friends of the faith from Randolph Junction, were summoned by the Spirit and Mrs. Clara Collins, widow of the beloved Nazarene preacher Ely Collins, to West Condon on the weekend of the eighteenth and nineteenth of April, there to await the End of the World.” The Origin of the Brunists (1966), Robert Coover.

74. “She waited, Kate Croy, for her father to come in, but he kept her unconscionably, and there were moments at which she showed herself, in the glass over the mantel, a face positively pale with the irritation that had brought her to the point of going away without sight of him.” The Wings of the Dove (1902), Henry James.

75. “In the late summer of that year we lived in a house in a village that looked across the river and the plain to the mountains.” A Farewell to Arms (1929), Ernest Hemingway.

76. “‘Take my camel, dear,’ said my Aunt Dot, as she climbed down from this animal on her return from High Mass.” The Towers of Trebizond (1956), Rose Macauley.

77. “He was an inch, perhaps two, under six feet, powerfully built, and he advanced straight at you with a slight stoop of the shoulders, head forward, and a fixed from-under stare which made you think of a charging bull.” Lord Jim (1900), Joseph Conrad.

78. “The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there.” The Go-Between (1953), LP Hartley.

79. “On my naming day when I come 12 I gone front spear and kilt a wyld boar he parbly ben the las wyld pig on the Bundel Downs any how there hadnt ben none for a long time befor him nor I aint looking to see none agen.” Riddley Walker (1980), Russell Hoban.

80. “Justice?—You get justice in the next world, in this world you have the law.” A Frolic of His Own (1994), Willian Gaddis.

81. “Vaughan died yesterday in his last car-crash.” Crash (1973), JG Ballard.

82. “I write this sitting in the kitchen sink.” I Capture the Castle (1948), Dodie Smith.

83. “‘When your mama was the geek, my dreamlets,’ Papa would say, ‘she made the nipping off of noggins such a crystal mystery that the hens themselves yearned toward her, waltzing around her, hypnotized with longing.’” Geek Love (1983), Katherine Dunn.

84. “In the last years of the Seventeenth Century there was to be found among the fops and fools of the London coffee-houses one rangy, gangling flitch called Ebenezer Cooke, more ambitious than talented, and yet more talented than prudent, who, like his friends-in-folly, all of whom were supposed to be educating at Oxford or Cambridge, had found the sound of Mother English more fun to game with than her sense to labor over, and so rather than applying himself to the pains of scholarship, had learned the knack of versifying, and ground out quires of couplets after the fashion of the day, afroth with Joves and Jupiters, aclang with jarring rhymes, and string-taut with similes stretched to the snapping-point.” The Sot-Weed Factor (1960), John Barth.

85. “When I finally caught up with Abraham Trahearne, he was drinking beer with an alcoholic bulldog named Fireball Roberts in a ramshackle joint just outside of Sonoma, California, drinking the heart right out of a fine spring afternoon.” The Last Good Kiss (1978), James Crumley.

86. “It was just noon that Sunday morning when the sheriff reached the jail with Lucas Beauchamp though the whole town (the whole county too for that matter) had known since the night before that Lucas had killed a white man.” Intruder in the Dust (1948), William Faulkner.

87. “I, Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus This-that-and-the-other (for I shall not trouble you yet with all my titles) who was once, and not so long ago either, known to my friends and relatives and associates as ‘Claudius the Idiot,’ or ‘That Claudius,’ or ‘Claudius the Stammerer’, or ‘Clau-Clau-Claudius’ or at best as ‘Poor Uncle Claudius’, am now about to write this strange history of my life; starting from my earliest childhood and continuing year by year until I reach the fateful point of change where, some eight years ago, at the age of fifty-one, I suddenly found myself caught in what I may call the ‘golden predicament’ from which I have never since become disentangled.” I, Claudius (1934), Robert Graves.

88. “Of all the things that drive men to sea, the most common disaster, I’ve come to learn, is women.” Middle Passage (1990), Charles Johnson.

89. “I am an American, Chicago born—Chicago, that somber city—and go at things as I have taught myself, free-style, and will make the record in my own way: first to knock, first admitted; sometimes an innocent knock, sometimes a not so innocent.” The Adventures of Augie March (1953), Saul Bellow.

90. “The towers of Zenith aspired above the morning mist; austere towers of steel and cement and limestone, sturdy as cliffs and delicate as silver rods.” Babbitt (1922), Sinclair Lewis.

91. “I will tell you in a few words who I am: lover of the hummingbird that darts to the flower beyond the rotted sill where my feet are propped; lover of bright needlepoint and the bright stitching fingers of humorless old ladies bent to their sweet and infamous designs; lover of parasols made from the same puffy stuff as a young girl’s underdrawers; still lover of that small naval boat which somehow survived the distressing years of my life between her decks or in her pilothouse; and also lover of poor dear black Sonny, my mess boy, fellow victim and confidant, and of my wife and child. But most of all, lover of my harmless and sanguine self.” Second Skin (1964), John Hawkes.

92. “He was born with a gift of laughter and a sense that the world was mad.” Scaramouche (1921), Raphael Sabatini.

93. “Psychics can see the color of time it’s blue.” Blown Away (1986), Ronald Sukenick.

94. “In the town, there were two mutes and they were always together.” The Heart is a Lonely Hunter (1940), Carson McCullers.

95. “Once upon a time two or three weeks ago, a rather stubborn and determined middle-aged man decided to record for posterity, exactly as it happened, word by word and step by step, the story of another man for indeed what is great in man is that he is a bridge and not a goal, a somewhat paranoiac fellow unmarried, unattached, and quite irresponsible, who had decided to lock himself in a room a furnished room with a private bath, cooking facilities, a bed, a table, and at least one chair, in New York City, for a year 365 days to be precise, to write the story of another person—a shy young man about of 19 years old—who, after the war the Second World War, had come to America the land of opportunities from France under the sponsorship of his uncle—a journalist, fluent in five languages—who himself had come to America from Europe Poland it seems, though this was not clearly established sometime during the war after a series of rather gruesome adventures, and who, at the end of the war, wrote to the father his cousin by marriage of the young man whom he considered as a nephew, curious to know if he the father and his family had survived the German occupation, and indeed was deeply saddened to learn, in a letter from the young man—a long and touching letter written in English, not by the young man, however, who did not know a damn word of English, but by a good friend of his who had studied English in school—that his parents both his father and mother and his two sisters one older and the other younger than he had been deported they were Jewish to a German concentration camp Auschwitz probably and never returned, no doubt having been exterminated deliberately X * X * X * X, and that, therefore, the young man who was now an orphan, a displaced person, who, during the war, had managed to escape deportation by working very hard on a farm in Southern France, would be happy and grateful to be given the opportunity to come to America that great country he had heard so much about and yet knew so little about to start a new life, possibly go to school, learn a trade, and become a good, loyal citizen.” Double or Nothing (1971), Raymond Federman.

96. “Time is not a line but a dimension, like the dimensions of space.” Cat's Eye (1988), Margaret Atwood.

97. “He—for there could be no doubt of his sex, though the fashion of the time did something to disguise it—was in the act of slicing at the head of a Moor which swung from the rafters.” Orlando (1928), Virginia Woolf.

98. “High, high above the North Pole, on the first day of 1969, two professors of English Literature approached each other at a combined velocity of 1200 miles per hour.” Changing Places (1975), David Lodge.

99. “They say when trouble comes close ranks, and so the white people did.” Wide Sargasso Sea (1966), Jean Rhys.

100. “The cold passed reluctantly from the earth, and the retiring fogs revealed an army stretched out on the hills, resting.” The Red Badge of Courage (1895), Stephen Crane.

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